Biology Study Guide TopicsEndocrine System | Lymphatic System | Blood | Circulatory System | Skull Bones | Human Skull and Brain | Tissue Types | The Cell | DNA | Anatomy Models | Electron Transport Chain | History of Microbiology | Human Anatomy | Punnett Squares | What is Mitosis | What is Life | Macromolecules | Cellular Respiration | DNA Replication | Enzymes | Pathogenic Bacteria | Natural Selection | Punnett Squares | Transcription and Translation | Exam Notes | Viruses | Osmosis | Protists | Genetic Code | Mendelian Genetics | Meiosis | Sensory Processing | Amino Acids |
Online PresentationsBones of the Human Skull | Tissue Types | Selective and Differential Media
Classroom ActivitiesRecombinant DNA Cut And Tape Classroom Activity
The Endocrine System
1) The endocrine system uses hormones (chemical signals) to send messages through the blood stream to distant cells in the body.
2) Hormones control a wide range of activities in the cell including metabolism, growth and reproduction.
3) Based on chemical structure, there are 3 types of hormones:
4) The human body produces at least 50 different hormones- some examples are shown below, along with the location of their production.
5) Hormones are produced by many different organs in the body including the hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thymus gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, testes and ovaries. Secondary endocrine organs also are involved in the production and regulation of some hormones.
6) You'll notice in the above figure that several of these endocrine glands are located in the brain. Below is a closeup of their location.
7) The hypothalamus produces the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Oxytocin helps regulate contractions of the uterus during labor as well production of milk for breastfeeding. ADH (also known as vasopressin regulates urine production by the kidneys.
8) The pituitary gland produces a number of important hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TH), adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
9) The thyroid gland produces the hormones thyroid hormone and calcitonin.
10) The parthyroid glands produce parthyroid hormone.
11) The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. They produce several important hormones including androgens, estrogens, cortisone and cortisol.
12) The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin.